How will ultra precise atomic clocks change the wo

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How will ultra precise atomic clocks change the world in the next 10 years?

the world's most accurate clock is hidden deep in the 6-story concrete building of the National Institute of standards and technology. Here, you can hear the most accurate heartbeat in the digital world

the National Institute of standards and Technology (NIST) focuses on laser and quantum physics

the world's best clock is made in the National Institute of standards and technology

nist-f1 is the most standard clock in the United States, It is also the world's most accurate practical clock

the newly revised hydrogen maser of the National Institute of standards and technology

this chip sized atomic clock can be accurate to one billionth of a second

this red laser is part of the ultra accurate calcium atomic clock in the future

in this interval, the calcium atoms concentrated by this red laser

this cylinder contains a single captured atom, Resonance with yellow green laser

according to wired magazine, the world's most accurate clock is hidden in the 6-story concrete building of the National Institute of standards and Technology (NIST). It looks as if it is just a youth science exhibition project. Polished lenses and mirrors are piled disorderly on a column with weak silver light, and protected by a clear plastic tent

the cesium atomic clock now stored at the National Institute of standards and technology is the famous nist-f1. However, when F2 comes out next year, this F1 will be much inferior. Tom O'Brien, director of the time and frequency Department of the National Institute of standards and technology, said, "we basically follow Moore's law in the development of clocks, which will increase by a large level every 10 years."

The accuracy of the clock brings a science of time about the existence of crisis. Since the National Institute of standards and technology purchased a pendulum clock from a German watchmaking factory in 1904, this unit has become the holder of the clock record and created the world's most accurate time standard

the accuracy of its latest generation of atomic clocks has exceeded the original narrow range, making the accuracy of many clocks a waste. Moreover, the 400 scientists, engineers and employees of the Institute are more committed and better at clock research. They are reducing the atomic clock to the size of grain and testing new accuracy to detect the relative fluctuations of gravity and magnetic field. Within 10 years, their work will have a far-reaching impact on different fields such as medical imaging and geological survey

with old Beige walls and changeable tarpaulin floors, the time and frequency Department of the National Institute of standards and technology has worked hard to rewrite the accuracy of time. Some scientists who looked distracted walked back and forth in the hall and occasionally took a look at outsiders. Graduates, wearing wacky T-shirts, paced the building, walking through offices and laboratories with handy tools and thick folders, while cables and pipes zigzagged across the ceiling

time accuracy on the same day, the Ministry of industry and information technology also issued the catalogue of demonstration and guidance for the first use of key new materials (2017 version), which is the heartbeat of today's digital world

because time accuracy is the heartbeat of today's digital world. Each base station is equipped with an atomic clock, which can manage another tower from one tower. The space clock will let the GPS in the car tell you where you are, and a smaller clock can tune your wireless device. When the car has the ability of stable control, you can avoid traffic accidents. This is the great use of the cesium atomic clock in the secret room of the National Institute of standards and technology

however, Leo Holberg, a physicist at the optical frequency measurement group, is more concerned about the future. They are testing a new time accuracy using atoms such as calcium and ytterbium. Like nist-f1, cesium atomic clock uses laser to decelerate cesium atoms to reach the measurement state, and then adjust the microwave signal to make it close to the cesium resonance frequency of 9192631770 cycles per second

through this method, F1 accuracy can be optimized. In order to achieve the best accuracy of F1, scientists need to know their precise position relative to the clock at this time, and then consider the influence of weather, altitude and other external factors. For example, in the hot world, the optical fiber connecting F1 and the laboratory of the University of Colorado in the United States will be extended by 10 mm, and scientists have to keep tracking and calculating. Under the accuracy of F1, the position change will affect the accuracy of the atomic clock. For example, recently, after scientists moved the atomic clock from the third floor to the second floor, they had to readjust its system to make up for the error caused by the height drop of 3.5 meters

relative to calcium and ytterbium, the specific requirements are as follows: son, cesium atom can be regarded as the father of atomic clock. Holberg's research team will specially adjust these particles. Because it is too slow to use microwave, scientists use color laser instead. Holberg said that each atom has its own spectral characteristics. Calcium resonates with red, and ytterbium resonates with purple. According to this principle, scientists hope to create a more accurate mercury ion clock and an absolutely stable clock

correct the relative change of the earth's shape

at that time, a sufficiently accurate clock can correct the relative change of the earth's shape. Due to the change of the earth's shape due to the change of environmental factors, it is necessary to correct the clock, which is obviously different from the host. After that, scientists will also revise the changes of the universe, astrophysics and space-time, and draw maps of magnetic field and gravity changes. This means that different terrains will have different gravity offsets. With this, scientists can map the distribution of oil, liquid sail magma and groundwater. In short, the National Institute of standards and technology is building the first high-tech probe to explore water and mineral resources

for a moving ship, this clock will change its frequency due to changes in the shape of the seabed and the density deep in the earth. For volcanoes, this clock frequency changes with the movement and vibration of magma. The important reason why scientists use these maps of changes is the lack of standardization. They can distinguish saline and freshwater areas, and may eventually predict the eruption of volcanoes, earthquakes and other natural disasters based on the change of gravity under the ground

in addition, scientists are still thinking about making a miniature atomic clock, which is only the size of sugar cube and can be driven by AA battery. Oblain said that its most obvious application is to make the GPS receiver more accurate, of course, there are other uses

last fall, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States used the grain big atomic clock produced by the National Institute of standards and technology to plot the magnetic field changes of mouse heartbeat. They placed the clock 2 mm outside the mouse's chest and observed how the mouse's iron rich blood affected the tick of the clock every time its heart beat. Since then, the National Institute of standards and technology has improved the accuracy of this clock by a huge order of magnitude. Using a row of such clocks as magnetometers, they have become a new imaging device that can be used to check the activities of the heart and brain. Moreover, this device is easy to carry, and the price is only a few hundred dollars

this technology can also be used to explore the external appearance of internal work. The electromagnetic field around us is everywhere and will change slightly due to our activities. A sufficiently accurate clock will be disturbed by the changes of these magnetic fields. From this situation, we can infer what is where and what is moving. Like the heart of a mouse, a row of synchronous clocks can create a real-time map of continuous changes in the environment. This research is called passive radar. Through this technology, scientists may eventually find the interaction between space-time and gravity

cosmologists are particularly concerned about this. The early model of the universe shows that the laws of physics will change over time, and it will also change with our detection ability. If so, scientists hope that this extremely accurate clock can provide the first evidence of changes in the structure of space-time

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